IP, living organisms, and patents

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I just printed one of the most god-awful papers I’ve written. A tragedy because I liked the topic. But the page limit was too short, and my sources too numerous. Sigh.

bad sign #1: I used the word “morality” 8 times in one paragraph

bad sign #2: I used google far more than any of the legal databases. (although that probably says more about the databases than my lazyness)

bad sign #3: I’m still up at 5 am for a paper I don’t care about


Convention on the Grant of European Patents, 5 October 1973

Directive 98/44 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 1998 on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions

EC Commission, Life Sciences and Biotechnology ¨C A Strategy for Europe (2002)

35 U.S.C. ¡ì 101 (2000).

Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980).


Barton, John H. & Peter Berger. Patenting Agriculture (2001)

Clark, Jeanne. Patent Pools: A Solution to the Problem of Access in Biotechnology Patents? (2000) U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Crespi, Stephen. “Biotechnology Patenting: The Wicked Animal Must Defend Itself” (1995)

Gallini, Nancy & Suzanne Scotchmer. “Intellectual Property: When Is It the Best Incentive System?” (2002)

Gold, E.R. et al., “Equity and Genomics Knowledge: A ‘Global Public Good’ Perspective of the Patent System” (2004)

Gold, E.R. et al., “Needed: models of biotechnology intellectual property” (2002)

Matthews, D. “WTO Decision on Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the Trips Agreement and Public Health: A Solution to the Access to Essential Medicines Problem?” (2004)

Merges, Robert P. Institutions for Intellectual Property Transactions: The Case of Patent Pools (1999)

Robinson, Douglas & Nina Medlock. Diamond v. Chakrabarty: A Retrospective on 25 Years of Biotech Patents (2005)

Safrin, Sabrina. “Hyperownership in a Time of Biotechnological Promise: The International Conflict to Control the Building Blocks of Life”

Schertenleib, Denis. “The Patentability and Protection of Living Organisms in the European Union” (2004)

Thomas, David & Georgina A. Richards. “The Importance of the Morality Exception Under the European Patent Convention: The Oncomouse Case Continues” (2004)

Wells, Angus J. “Patenting New Life Forms: An Ecological Perspective” (1994)


Manual of Patent Examining Procedure, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office


“A market for ideas” The Economist (22 October 2005)

“Biotechnology: Is the Tide Turning in Europe’s Favour?” (May 1998)

“Legislating a Transgenics Revolution” (19 June 1998)

The race to buy life The Guardian (15 November 2000)

324 Biotechnology Medicines Now Being Tested Offer New Treatment Hope for Nearly 150 Diseases (25 October 2004)

Slow progress for EU biotech The Scientist (30 April 2004)


EuropaBio, Biotechnology in Europe: 2005 Comparative Study

National Science Foundation, National Patterns of R&D Resources: 2003